UIster inflicted the first defeat of the season on table-toppers Glasgow and duly returned to third place in the Guinness PRO12 table.
Second-half touchdowns from Craig Gilroy and Tommy Bowe made the outcome secure while Ian Humphreys kicked 19 points in the 29-9 home success.
The win gave Ulster their second consecutive victory over Scottish opposition and ensured that they head to Leicester in good shape for next weekend's European opener.
Meanwhile, the much-changed Warriors side ended up licking their wounds after falling to their first loss in five league outings.
The visitors scored first when Glasgow fly-half Finn Russell opened the scoring for the visitors with a seventh-minute penalty after Wiehahn Herbst was pinged by Nigel Owens for lazy running.
The home side hit back immediately with Ian Humphreys scoring a penalty after the Warriors interfered with a driving maul and then, after winning another penalty at a scrum, he scored it.
Russell then drew the sides level on 19 minutes after the TMO had been consulted over a mid-air collision between Louis Ludik and former Ulster player Tommy Seymour.
The clash left Ludik needing attention but it was judged to have rather more involved Herbst, leading to the visitors' penalty which had been already flagged before the incident.
Russell levelled the scores but then Humphreys got another shot several minutes later to take Ulster back into the lead.
Another big Ulster scrum yielded another chance for Humphreys, although the out-half was left holding his head in his hands after missing a great chance three minutes later.
A break from Stuart McCloskey had taken play out of the home side's 22 deep into Glasgow territory and ended up with Warriors second row Leone Nakarawa being binned for blatant offside.
Humphreys did not miss with his next shot, which arrived a minute after the Warriors' ill-discipline cost them dearly. His 35th-minute strike made it 15-6 to Ulster.
The Warriors made the perfect start to the second half, though, with Russell scoring his third penalty.
In the 59th minute, after another notable break from McCloskey, Humphreys put a ball into the corner which hit the flag and bounced into the in-goal area only for Payne to dive on it.
The call went upstairs but the ball had just rolled out.
The game was then held up for at least 10 minutes while Glasgow centre Mark Bennett received medical attention.
Just after Bennett's departure on a stretcher, Humphreys missed a drop goal.
Crucially, though, Ulster scored next and, on 67 minutes, Gilroy danced through and Humphreys nailed a superb touchline conversion to make it 22-9.
That became 29-9 two minutes later after a spilled ball in midfield was scooped up by Bowe, who cantered in from his own half to dot down under the sticks, giving Humphreys two easy points.