Three people have been killed in protests over the repeat of the presidential election in Kenya, police said.
A source said one person was killed in the opposition stronghold of Kisumu County, another in Homa Bay in the west, and the third in Athi River town outside the capital, Nairobi.
Kenyan police fired bullets and tear gas at stone-throwing protesters in some opposition areas during the ballot rerun, reflecting bitter divisions in a country whose main opposition leader urged his followers to boycott the vote.
One man shot by police during protests in the western city of Kisumu died in hospital, police said, while three others in the city were admitted with gunshot wounds.
Protesters set fires and blocked roads in some areas, and violence also erupted in Nairobi's Kibera slum.
No ballot boxes were delivered to central Kisumu's 190 polling stations, said a senior election official, John Ngutai Muyekho.
"We are not going to vote and we are not going to allow it," said Olga Onyanga, an opposition supporter.
Voting proceeded in areas where President Uhuru Kenyatta has support, but fewer voters were turning out than in the August election that the Supreme Court nullified because it found illegalities and irregularities in the election process.
Mr Kenyatta said 90% of the country was calm and Kenya must remove ethnic loyalties from its politics.
The president, who was declared the winner in August with 54% of the vote, had said security forces would be deployed nationwide to ensure order on Thursday, and he urged Kenyans to vote while respecting the rights of those who did not.
Opposition leader Raila Odinga, who got nearly 45% of the vote in August, has said the new election will not be credible because of a lack of electoral reform, and accused Mr Kenyatta of moving a country known for relative stability and openness towards authoritarian rule.
Mr Odinga's call for a boycott resonated strongly in Kisumu, Kenya's third-largest city. He urged followers to stay away from polling stations because of concerns about a crackdown by security forces.
Human rights groups said police killed at least 67 people during protests after the August vote. Authorities confirmed a smaller number of deaths and said they had to take action against rioters.
Mr Odinga has said the opposition coalition, the National Super Alliance, will become a resistance movement.
On Thursday, he said the movement will constitute a "People's Assembly to guide the country to a fresh, free and fair presidential election" as part of a peaceful resistance that will include boycotting goods and services by those who have supported Mr Kenyatta's "lawless grab of the presidency".
Mr Odinga and Mr Kenyatta, who is seeking a second term, also faced off in a 2013 election similarly marred by opposition allegations of vote-rigging.
The opposition leader also ran unsuccessfully in 2007, and ethnic-fuelled violence after that vote killed more than 1,000 people and forced 600,000 from their homes.
Many observers say Kenya's ethnic-based politics overshadow the promise of its democracy. Mr Kenyatta is a Kikuyu, while Mr Odinga is a Luo.