The victory continues the group winners’ momentum heading into a last-16 clash with Slovakia while losing coach Paul Le Guen confirmed that he will leave his post when his contract runs out this summer.
In the 35th minute, Robin van Persie opened the scoring, firing between Souleymanou’s legs.
Van Persie was withdrawn before the hour mark with Klaas Jan Huntelaar coming on. Cameroon were then handed a 64th-minute penalty by referee Pablo Pozo when Van der Vaart raised his arm to block Geremi’s free-kick, receiving a booking for his trouble.
Captain Eto’o kept his nerve to convert a perfect spot-kick.
But with seven minutes left, Robben replaced van der Vaart and he made an impact quickly, cutting inside and firing a trademark left-footed shot which hit the post and fell to Huntelaar to fire the Dutch to victory.
CAMEROON: Hamidou, Njitap, M’bia Etoundi, N’Koulou (Rigobert Song 73), Assou-Ekotto, Makoun, Chedjou, N’Guemo, Bong (Aboubakar 56), Eto’o, Choupo-Moting (Idrissou 72).
HOLLAND: Stekelenburg, Boulahrouz, Heitinga, Mathijsen, Van Bronckhorst, Kuyt (Elia 67), Van Bommel, De Jong, Van der Vaart (Robben 73), Sneijder, van Persie (Huntelaar 58).
Referee: Pablo Pozo (Chile).