The synagogue is in the district of Har Nof, which is mainly inhabited by Orthodox Jews who are exempt from compulsory service in the Israeli army so as to devote themselves to religious study.
But this is not a new aspect of Palestinian policy, as the similar attack on non-Zionist Jews in Hebron in 1929 demonstrated.
The perpetrators of the massacre, having chosen such a target, were not motivated primarily by political considerations but by a hatred of Jews.
Statements by prominent Palestinian spokesmen in their praise suggest that it is this, and not any injustices suffered by them, that is the root of the problem.
Until such incitement ceases, there can be no peaceful solution.