The comic actor also starred in classic films such as The Producers, Blazing Saddles, and Young Frankenstein.
In 1989, the two-time Oscar-nominated actor was diagnosed with non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
Wilder’s nephew confirmed the actor died on Sunday in Stamford, Connecticut, due to complications from Alzheimer’s disease.
The star first made waves on Broadway before transitioning to the silver screen for a brief role as a kidnapped undertaker in Bonnie and Clyde in 1967.
Mel Brooks, who directed The Producers, said on Twitter: “Gene Wilder - One of the truly great talents of our time. He blessed every film we did with his magic & he blessed me with his friendship.”
Comedian and presenter Dara Ó Briain tweeted: “Gene Wilder has died. Sad news, but such a life well lived. For me, Young Frankenstein just pips Wonka, but so many wonderful performances.
“Expecting to hear people were fans of Blazing Saddles, Producers and Stir Crazy, but amazing number going for See No Evil, Hear No Evil.”
Stephen Fry tweeted: “Farewell #GeneWilder, comic genius. Thank you for all those happy happy hours.”