The Scottish Parliament has symbolically rejected any no-deal Brexit, despite opposition from Conservative MSPs.
A motion calling for MSPs to reject the prospect of a no-deal Brexit under all circumstances and opposing Boris Johnson's plans to suspend Westminster in the lead-up to the October 31 deadline was passed, with only Tories voting against.
Constitutional Relations Secretary Mike Russell, who tabled the debate, called for the Scottish Parliament to join the Scottish Government in "urging the Prime Minister to pull back from the brink of inflicting major damage on our country, our prospects and our reputation".
Mr Russell described Mr Johnson's attempts to force through a no-deal Brexit by proroguing the Westminster Parliament as "shabby sleight of hand in order to silence any opposition".
In response to Tory MSP Murdo Fraser saying the SNP voted against Theresa May's deal three times, Mr Russell said more Conservative members voted against the Withdrawal Agreement than SNP MPs.
He added: "Brexit will make the people of Scotland poorer and cut this country off from the European mainstream and the SNP will never vote for that. The deal negotiated by the previous Prime Minister would have taken Scotland and the UK out of the customs union and the single market.
That dreadful outcome doesn't become tolerable just because another Prime Minister is threatening us with something even worse.
Speaking in favour of the freedom of movement for people coming to Scotland and the "overwhelmingly positive contribution" they have made to the country, Mr Russell warned a no-deal Brexit would damage businesses and the public sector.
He added: "In the health and public care sector, we would simply not be able to care for our sick and elderly people if we cannot attract or keep the dedicated staff we need, so many of whom have come from EU countries."
Mr Russell also accused Boris Johnson's Government of "failing to engage with the devolved administrations", saying under Theresa May's leadership "we disagreed on policy but both sides knew we had to work together".
Criticising the lack of communication with Mr Johnson's ministers, he added: "It could be that they are simply disorganised but it could be that they are deliberately keeping the devolved administrations in the dark in order to try and blame them when things go wrong."
Scottish Conservative MSP Donald Cameron said a negotiated exit from the EU was the "best outcome and the best way to deliver on the referendum result" and claimed there "is still a good chance that a deal will be struck".
Mr Cameron, the party's newly appointed Europe spokesman, admitted his personal view was a no-deal Brexit "should be avoided, given the effects that it would have". He added the Scottish Parliament should support the Prime Minister in getting a deal.
Scottish Liberal Democrat leader Willie Rennie said: "Donald Cameron seems to be one of the few Conservatives left supporting Theresa May's deal. It wasn't me, Mike Russell or even Alex Rowley's MPs who blocked that deal.
"It wasn't us on our own, it wasn't possible for us to do it on our own. It was his own new Prime Minister who blocked that deal and his colleagues in the ERG. So don't blame us, blame your own party. Your own party that is divided and has divided this country for decades on this issue, you should accept your responsibility for this mess."
Scottish Labour MSP Alex Rowley said: "I've got to ask the Scottish Tories in this chamber: Where do your priorities lie - your country, your party or your career?"
Ross Greer, the Scottish Green MSP, condemned Mr Johnson's plans to prorogue Parliament - a policy that is being challenged in courts in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland.
He said: "The decision to suspend the Westminster Parliament in an attempt to force a no-deal Brexit is an affront to democracy. And we now know this was being planned for weeks. This is the behaviour of authoritarians, not democrats."