1:3 ratio bicarbonate of soda to cream of tartar.
Crushed crackers, salty ones like TUC or Ritz are best.
1 tbsp of lemon juice or vinegar stirred into 250ml milk and left to stand for five minutes.
Equal amounts plain flour.
1 egg is equal to 3 tbsp aquafaba (the liquid from a tin of chickpeas) or 1 tbsp of vinegar and 1 tsp bicarbonate of soda.
200g granulated sugar with 1 tbsp cornflour blended in a food processor to a fine powder.
½ teaspoon vinegar or 1 teaspoon white wine or 1 tsp lime juice.
Sour cream, full-fat yoghurt, blended cottage cheese.
Honey, maple syrup, golden syrup, corn syrup.
Shallots, leeks, spring onions.
Mix 100g plain flour with 1 tsp baking powder.
Tamari, liquid aminos, Worcestershire sauce, fish sauce, miso paste dissolved in water.
Grana Padano, Asiago cheese, or nutritional yeast.
Currants, dried cherries, dried cranberries, dried prunes.
Soy sauce, fish sauce, sherry vinegar, balsamic vinegar.