Hundreds of thousands of people across Europe joined demonstrations or went on strike today as they demanded that governments stop cutting benefits and create more employment.
Those with jobs and without spoke of a “social emergency” crippling the world’s largest economic bloc, the EU.
The protests were met with tear gas in Italy and Spain, but were largely limited to the countries hardest hit by the austerity measures designed to bring government spending into line with revenues. Wealthier nations like Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark saw only small, sedate demonstrations.
Governments backing the line of stringent austerity were not impressed by the show of force.
“We must nevertheless do what is necessary: break open encrusted labour markets, give more people a chance to work, become more flexible in many areas,” German Chancellor Angela Merkel said. “We will of course make this clear, again and again, in talks with the unions.”
Spanish Economy Minister Luis de Guindos spoke of “a long crisis that has meant sacrifice and uncertainty,” but said: “The government is convinced that the path we have taken is the only possible way out.”
To combat a three-year financial crisis over too much sovereign debt, governments across Europe have had to raise taxes and cut spending, pensions and benefits. As well as hitting workers’ incomes and living standards, these measures have also led to a decline in economic output and a sharp increase in unemployment.
The 17 country eurozone is expected to fall into recession when official figures are released tomorrow. Unemployment across those countries has reached a record 11.6%, with Spain and Greece seeing levels above 25%.
With no end in sight to the economic hardship, workers were trying to take a stand.
“There is a social emergency in the south,” said Bernadette Segol, secretary general of the European Trade Union Confederation. “All recognise that the policies carried out now are unfair and not working.”
Spain’s General Workers’ Union said the nationwide strike – the second this year – was being observed by nearly all workers in the automobile, energy, shipbuilding and construction industries.
The country, reeling from austerity measures designed to prevent it from asking for a full-blown international bailout, is mired in recession with 50% unemployment among its under-25s.
Ignacio Fernandez Toxo, a CCOO Spanish union leader, called the action “a political strike against the policies of a suicidal and anti-social government.”
The Spanish strike shut most schools, and hospitals operated with skeleton staffs. Health and education have both suffered serious spending cutbacks and increased moves toward privatisation.
Frustration spilled into violence when riot police clashed with demonstrators in Madrid and other Spanish cities.
In Italy, protests turned violent as well, with some of the tens of thousands of students and workers clashing with riot police in several cities.
In bailed-out Portugal, where the government intends to intensify austerity measures next year, the second general strike in eight months left commuters stranded as trains ground to a virtual halt and the Lisbon subway shut down. About 200 flights to and from Portugal – about half the daily average – were cancelled. Hospitals provided only minimum services and municipal trash was left uncollected.
Airports across Europe were forced to cancel flights to and from striking nations.
In Belgium, a 24-hour rail stoppage severely disrupted the Thalys and the Eurostar high-speed rail services – vital links that connect Brussels, London and Paris.
Philippe de Buck, chief of the EU employers’ federation Eurobusiness, said the strike would cost billions of euros and hurt Europe’s ability to attract investors.
“If you start striking at national level and in companies you only will harm the economy,” he said. “And it is not the right thing to do today.”
The union action was not felt across the entire region, however, with countries where austerity has not hit as hard experiencing little disruption.
In Austria, which has the eurozone’s lowest unemployment at 4.3%, only about 350 people gathered in a central square in Vienna to express solidarity with Greece.
“So far, there are only symbolic demonstrations here in Germany, because we were able to avoid the crisis,” said Michael Sommer, the head of Germany’s main labour union federation.
In Denmark, too, there were no strikes, since cooperation between workers and employers has largely survived the crisis.
“The employers speak the same language as we do and we understand each other’s needs and demands,” said Joergen Frederiksen, a 69-year-old retired worker and former shop steward.
“There are good vibes between us and that means a lot.”