The seventh seed plays a remarkable number of three-setters and a second-set lapse cost her again, although she recovered well in the decider to defeat Doi 6-2 3-6 6-1.
Kvitova, the 2011 Wimbledon champion, has been consistent only in her inconsistency this season and yesterday’s win was a fifth three-setter out of her last six victories.
The former world number one had enjoyed good preparation for the US Open until a first-round defeat by Alize Cornet in Cincinnati.
The Czech next meets Serbian Bojana Jovanovski, who put out Germany’s Andrea Petkovic 6-2 6-4.
Ana Ivanovic was the first winner of the day, the 13th seed thrashing Anna Tatishvili 6-2 6-0 in just 58 minutes.
Ivanovic said: “I’ve been playing really well and I had a few tough losses. It’s obviously hard, more so emotionally than anything else. I’m very confident with my game.
“I know I did a very good preparation. I have a new team with me. Obviously it takes time to get comfortable, to get things to work smoothly. I’m very happy at the way everything is.”
There were also comfortable wins for Maria Kirilenko and Roberta Vinci.
The US Open lost two of men’s tennis’ rising stars in the first round as Grigor Dimitrov and Jerzy Janowicz were sent packing.
Dimitrov, the 25th seed, is yet to live up to his talent, with some standout victories accompanied by baffling losses.
This fell into the latter category, with the 22-year-old Bulgarian going down 3-6 6-3 6-4 5-7 6-2 to world number 95 Joao Sousa.
Dimitrov, whose best performance in a grand slam is a third-round appearance at the French Open this year, twice fought back from a break down in the fourth set but was outplayed in the decider.
Janowicz’s 6-4 6-4 6-2 defeat by Argentinian Maximo Gonzalez was even worse on paper but he was hampered by a back injury that took away the power of his fearsome serve.
Janowicz called the trainer onto Court 13 during the second set and, although he recovered from 4-1 to 4-4, there was no way back.
The 14th seed would have hoped to do damage here after reaching the semi-finals at Wimbledon and his exit along with that of Ernests Gulbis on Monday makes a wide open third section of the draw even more so.
Milos Raonic, the Canadian 10th seed who reached the Masters series final in Montreal earlier this month, beat Italian qualifier Thomas Fabbiano 6-3 7-6 (8/6) 6-3.
Asked if he feels he is ready to challenge at a grand slam, he said: “I think I can put myself in that position.
“I just have to make the opportunities and convert them. I think if I play well, I can get very close if not do it. It’s still a long way to go, a very long way.”