Fianna Fáil said the Government should have allowed separate votes on cuts to spending for each Government department.
The opposition party is accusing the Government of not allowing any debate in the Dáil earlier on spending cuts of €1.6bn.
Among the cuts is a €200m reduction in funding to the HSE this year.
Fianna Fail's spokesman on Public Expenditure and Reform, Sean Fleming, said medical cards are already being targeted as part of wide-ranging cutbacks.
"I've met a number of people whose cards are not due to expire until next December - already they're reviewing them to see if they can cancel them early," he claimed.
He also accused the government of targeting elderly people and single parents through cuts to allowances for those groups.