Inhaling tobacco smoke in the home also made young children vulnerable to invasive meningococcal infection. For those under five, passive smoking more than doubled the risk, a study found. Meningococcal bacteria are responsible for the most dangerous form of meningitis and can also invade the blood, lungs or joints.
One in 20 of those struck by invasive meningococcal disease will die, despite medical attention, and one in six will be left severely disabled.
Several studies have suggested a link between passive smoking and meningococcal disease. To investigate the association, scientists carried out a systematic review of 18 studies and pooled their results.
This kind of meta-analysis can uncover trends that may be missed by individual studies.
The findings, published in the online journal BMC Public Health, show that exposure to second-hand smoke both in the home and womb significantly increases the risk of meningococcal disease.
Passive smoking in the home doubled the risk in children and raised it even further in the under-fives.
For children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, the risk was three times higher than for children born into non-smoking households.
Study leader Dr Rachael Murray, from the UK Centre for Tobacco Studies at the University of Nottingham, said the findings from this study highlight consistent evidence of the further harms of smoking around children and during pregnancy.
She said parents and family should be encouraged not to smoke in the home or around children.