Bitter truth about sugar

WE ALL know that keeping our weight under control can help avoid serious health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, and the recommended route is normally a simple combination of diet and exercise.

But to tackle the problem on a long-term basis involves much more than that, according to Dr Mark Hyman, a US authority on functional medicine, who says reducing blood sugar is the key.

He advocates changing diet and lifestyle to achieve this goal — and consequently reduce the risk of a multitude of health problems.

Dr Hyman claims that the one in four Irish people classed as obese probably have what he calls ‘diabesity’, which begins with elevated blood sugar and mild insulin resistance.

Insulin helps the body use or store glucose from food, and while people with type 2 diabetes still make insulin , their bodies don’t respond well to it. This is called insulin resistance, which can lead to high blood-sugar, and possibly eventual organ damage.

The best way to tackle it, he claims, is through a personalised approach which assesses the underlying cause of each individual’s ‘diabesity’, and allows them to take steps to combat it — some of which are outlined here.


“If you’re overweight or have type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes, it’s just a symptom and there may be many different causes,” explains Dr Hyman.

“It could be that you have weird bugs in your gut, it could be that you’re poisoned with mercury or petrochemicals, it could be that you’re eating gluten and it’s driving inflammation, or it could just be that your diet’s poor, you’re malnourished, you’re under stress, or your cells are not working right metabolically.

“In any one person it can be figured out, and fixed.”


In his new book The Blood Sugar Solution, Dr Hyman suggests that anyone who struggles with type 2 diabetes, high blood sugar, weight problems, fatigue, depression, or any chronic illness at all, should consider following the steps in his six-week action plan, which simply aims to create all-round good health.

The steps include good nutrition, taking dietary supplements, relaxing, taking gentle exercise, and avoiding toxins and allergens.

Dr Hyman says that ‘diabesity’ is a continuum of health problems ranging from mild insulin resistance and being overweight to obesity and diabetes, and is “the single largest global health epidemic of our time”.

“It’s one of the leading causes of heart disease, dementia, cancer and premature death in the world, and is almost entirely caused by environmental and lifestyle factors. This means it is almost 100% preventable and curable.”

Dr Hyman suggests that people assess the root cause of their health and weight problems — his book contains a series of quizzes to do just that — then tackle the specific cause.


The first step in The Blood Sugar Solution is good nutrition, and balancing blood-sugar levels. To stabilise blood-sugar, Dr Hyman recommends avoiding all sugars, flour, processed food, gluten and dairy, and simply eating high quality foods. Nutritional supplements are also “essential”, he says.

“It’s embarrassingly simple. We should eat real, unprocessed food, we shouldn’t be eating sugar but should be eating fruits and vegetables, lean animal protein, omega 3 fats, nuts and seeds and beans and some wholegrains.”


As well as stabilising levels of the hormone insulin, it’s also important to identify and treat thyroid imbalances that control metabolism, and overactive stress hormones that worsen insulin resistance and blood sugar. Diet, exercise and nutritional supplements can all help, says Dr Hyman.


Inflammation causes insulin resistance and vice-versa, says Dr Hyman, who points out that the inflammation that causes obesity is hidden and is created by the immune system as it fights off bad food. As well as poor foods, he warns that toxins, food allergies, stress and a sedentary lifestyle can all promote inflammation.


A toxic digestive system caused by poor diet, certain drugs and stress can cause metabolic problems, but eating good foods can introduce good bacteria into the gut.


Studies show that environmental toxins interfere with blood sugar and cholesterol metabolism, and cause insulin resistance. Dr Hyman suggests that people who’ve struggled with weight loss despite trying to diet and exercise may find that environmental toxins are the problem.

He says eating organic food and drinking plenty of water can help, as well as being aware of environmental toxins, such as those in household products, and trying to reduce them where possible.

“I like people to do a detox — we’ve been addicted to compounds that are driving illness for most of our lives. I call it the white menace — white sugar, white flour, white fat, and also caffeine and alcohol.”


Dr Hyman points out that recent studies show increasing numbers of teenagers have either type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes, and more than a third of skinny teenagers have signs of metabolic syndrome, with high blood sugar, blood pressure or cholesterol.

“People might think they’re getting away with eating junk because they’re not gaining weight, but they’re not, because it changes their biology and drives huge amounts of dysfunction which can create disease, regardless of weight.”

* The Blood Sugar Solution, published by Hodder & Stoughton, €21.45.

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