Paul Reid has been appointed as the new Director General of the HSE.
The current chief executive of Fingal County Council takes over following the departure of Tony O'Brien in May 2018.
He will serve a five-year term, beginning on May 14.
Mr Reid said in a statement he was honoured to take on the challenging role.
"There is no doubt this will be a huge challenge as we will have to manage and strengthen the current service delivery mechanisms, whilst at the same time leading the transformation to a new model of integrated care as set out under Sláintecare," he said.
Mr Reid worked in the private sector with Eircom, before becoming head of organisational development and corporate affairs with Trócaire.
He joined the Department of Public Expenditure and Reform as the Chief Operating Officer.
He is a member of the Advisory Council on Sláintecare, and was previously Vice Chair of the National Task Force on Youth Mental Health.
In the same statement issued by the Department of Health, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar and Minister for Health Simon Harris welcomed the appointment.
Mr Varadkar said: "Paul Reid takes up this post at a critical time of change and reform in our health services. For the first time in a long time, we have the resources, we have the plan and we have the people to move forward.
"Paul will work with the newly appointed and empowered HSE board and with the Executive Director of Sláintecare, Laura Magahy, as implementation of our 10-year plan to improve and reform the health service steps up a gear."
Minister Harris said: "The appointment of Paul Reid comes at an exciting time for the health service with a clear policy direction as outlined by Sláintecare, record investment and a major capital programme.
"We now have the key building blocks for a health service that the public deserve as he brings his extensive skillset to this role. He has proven himself to be a leader in public service and has a track record of reform."
He also thanked Anne O'Connor, who had been acting as interim Director General since Mr O'Brien stepped down.
Mr Reid's appointment was noted by Cabinet ministers this morning.