In its announcement, the Norwegian Nobel Committee hailed Obama’s “extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and co-operation between peoples”.
Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg referred to Obama’s work for peace and disarmament, saying: “This is a surprising, an exciting prize. It remains to be seen if he will succeed with reconciliation, peace and nuclear disarmament.”
Afghanistan’s Taliban mocked the award, saying it was absurd to give it to Obama when he had ordered 21,000 extra troops to Afghanistan this year.
“The Nobel prize for peace? Obama should have won the ‘Nobel Prize for escalating violence and killing civilians’,” Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid said.
Mohamed ElBaradei, director-general of the UN International Atomic Energy Agency — awarded the prize in 2005 — said: “I cannot think of anyone today more deserving of this honour. In less than a year in office, he has transformed the way we look at ourselves and the world we live in and rekindled hope for a world at peace with itself.”
European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said in a statement: “The award of the prize to President Obama, leader of the most significant military power in the world, at the beginning of his mandate, is a reflection of the hopes he has raised globally with his vision of a world without nuclear weapons.”
Chief Palestinian peace negotiator Saeb Erekat said the award could be a good omen for peace in the region.
“We hope that he will be able to achieve peace in the Middle East and achieve Israeli withdrawal to 1967 borders and establish an independent Palestinian state on 1967 borders, with Jerusalem as its capital,” he said.
Israeli Defence Minister Ehud Barak told army radio he believed the award would enhance Obama’s ability “to contribute to establishing regional peace in the Middle East and a settlement between us and the Palestinians that will bring security, prosperity and growth to all the peoples of the region”.
The Islamist movement Hamas, which controls the Gaza Strip and opposes a peace treaty with Israel, was more sceptical.
“Unless real and deep-rooted change is made in American policy towards recognising the rights of the Palestinian people I would think such a prize would be useless,” Ismail Haniyeh, Hamas prime minister in the Gaza Strip, told reporters.
Saleh al-Mutlaq, a senior Iraqi Sunni Muslim lawmaker, said: “I think he deserves this prize. Obama succeeded to make a real change in the policy of the United States — a change from a policy that was exporting evil to the world to a policy exporting peace and stability to the world.”
In Pakistan, Liaqat Baluch, a senior leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami, a conservative religious party, said: “It’s a joke. How embarrassing for those who awarded it to him because he’s done nothing for peace. What change has he brought in Iraq, the Middle East or Afghanistan?”
South Africa’s Archbishop Desmond Tutu, awarded the prize in 1984, hailed the award as “a magnificent endorsement for the first African American president in history”.
Mikhail Gorbachev, the former Soviet leader awarded the prize in 1990, was quoted by Itar-Tass news agency as saying: “In these hard times people who are capable of taking responsibility, who have a vision, commitment and political will should be supported.”
Wangari Maathai, a Kenyan environmentalist who won in 2004, referred to Obama’s mixed heritage of a Kenyan father and American mother, called it “another very encouraging event for Africa”.
From Obama’s ancestral village of Kogelo in western Kenya his uncle Said Obama said: “It is humbling for us as a family and we share in Barack’s honour. We congratulate him.”
Zimbabwean Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangarai, said: “I wish to congratulate President Obama. I think he is a deserving candidate.”
French President Nicolas Sarkozy said the Nobel Committee has recognised President Obama’s “determined commitment to human rights, justice and the promotion of peace in the world, in accordance with the will of founder Albert Nobel”.
The prize “does justice to your vision of tolerance and dialogue between states, cultures and civilisations”.
At home, Taoiseach Brian Cowen congratulated President Obama on behalf of the Irish people.
“In his first year of office, President Obama and his administration have sought to address many difficult international challenges and issues,” said Mr Cowen.
“He has worked patiently with countries from the Middle East and elsewhere, at the United Nations, the G20 and with the European Union partners to overcome them.”
The Taoiseach said the continued engagement of President Obama and the US to secure peace and prosperity in the North was deeply appreciated by the Government and the people of Ireland too.
“Ireland has consistently supported the need for sustained diplomatic engagement on disarmament and I welcome the US President’s efforts in this regard,” added Mr Cowen.