This antiquated practice is the worst form of gender inequality and it contravenes UN health, education, and economic targets, says.
At last month’s UN summit on sustainable development goals (SDG), child marriage did not get top billing. Yet ending this cruel practice — which steals girls’ childhoods and bodily autonomy — is necessary to achieve a range of SDG, including securing gender equality, improving health, and providing education and economic opportunities to all.
Born of antiquated patriarchal traditions and sustained by ignorance, poverty, and socio-economic inequality, child marriage remains widespread across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
In Niger, 76% of girls are married before their 18th birthday. Next on the list are the Central African Republic (68%) and Chad (67%). In the Middle East, 32% of girls in Yemen are married, followed by Iraq (24%) and Egypt (17%).
In total, 12m underage girls are married off each year. That is 12m girls who, unwillingly, have their childhoods — and, more than likely, their education — cut short and replaced by the obligation to endure multiple physically taxing, potentially life-threatening pregnancies, raise a family, and maintain a household.
Early marriage is correlated with high rates of psychological and domestic violence, and often leads to mental health problems and even early death. These risks were highlighted by international media coverage of Amina Filali, a 16-year-old Moroccan girl who committed suicide after being forced to marry her rapist.
Despite its devastating consequences — and notwithstanding the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which obliges countries to protect all residents under 18 — child marriage is often legal.
Moreover, the issue is rarely a part of national development debates and is largely ignored by government authorities, who are unwilling to challenge tradition. Even where legislation is in place to curb child marriage, it is often not stringent enough, as in Bangladesh and Morocco.
In 2004, Morocco reformed its family law to curtail child marriage. But, due to a conservative culture, the accommodation of religious fanatics, and gender discrimination, the practice was not criminalised. On the contrary, there forms left an exception for vaguely defined “extenuating circumstances”, such as pregnancy.
Some families are all too eager to skirt child-marriage laws, whether because of outmoded cultural beliefs — for example, that marriage is vital to keep girls from delinquency, prostitution, or debauchery — or poverty, which makes collecting a dowry, or ‘bride price’, highly appealing.
As a result, more than 30,000 underage girls in Morocco are still being forced to marry each year. Not surprisingly, violence against women is not decreasing.
What is needed are properly enforced laws that criminalise facilitation of, or participation in, child marriage. Individuals who officiate at child marriages and adults who take a child bride should face severe penalties. Early marriages should never be legal.
Such legislation should fit into broader national strategies for engaging women in economic, social, cultural, and political development. Girls and women need access to health care, education, and training. (On closing the gender gap in education, Morocco — as well as neighbours such as Tunisia and Algeria — has made significant headway in recent decades.)
Furthermore, a gender-sensitive approach should be applied in schools, businesses, and government, in order to encourage the participation of women in all sectors. Income-generating projects for poor families, especially in rural and distant areas, would also help, as would broad educational initiatives to correct the erroneous beliefs that sustain child marriage, and to alert communities to its true consequences.
This will require the involvement of all government institutions, civil society, the media, and other influential actors, like teachers, judges, and lawyers. Girls already married also need support, in the form of programmes that engage them and their husbands and mothers-in-law, and extended family.
Likewise, efforts should be made to help girls who have escaped an unwanted marriage or who have become widowed, as they often face social rejection and abuse. All women and girls deserve the chance to decide whether, when, and whom they marry.
They deserve autonomy over their bodies, including when to have children, and how many. And they deserve the opportunity to pursue their dreams and contribute to their communities and country’s economy, while improving their own standard of living.
If that is not enough to convince governments and civil-society leaders to fight to end child marriage, perhaps the boon to development will be.