Joan Rivers was the raucous, acid-tongued comedian who crashed the male-dominated realm of late-night talk shows and turned Hollywood red carpets into danger zones for badly dressed celebrities.
Daughter Melissa Rivers said: “My mother’s greatest joy in life was to make people laugh. Although that is difficult to do right now, I know her final wish would be that we return to laughing soon.”
Rivers had insults ready for all races, genders and creeds. During a long career, she moved from long-time targets such as the weight problems of Elizabeth Taylor, of whom she said “her favorite food is seconds”, to newer foes such as Miley Cyrus, and continued to appear on stage and on TV into her 80s.
Comedy was not only her calling but her therapy, as she turned her life inside out for laughs, mocking everything from her proclaimed lack of sex appeal (“My best birth control now is just to leave the lights on”) to her own mortality.
“I have never wanted to be a day less than I am,” she insisted in a 2013 interview. “People say ’I wish I were 30 again’. Nahhh! I’m very happy HERE. It’s great. It gets better and better. And then, of course, we die.”
With her red-carpet query “Who are you wearing?”, the raspy-voiced blonde with the brash New York accent also helped patent pre-awards commentary – and the snarky criticism that often accompanies it, like cracking that Adele’s Grammy wardrobe made the singer look like she was sitting on a teapot.
Rivers slammed actors at the Oscars, Emmys and Golden Globes for E! Entertainment.
In 2007, Rivers and daughter Melissa were dropped by their new employer, the TV Guide Channel, and replaced by actress Lisa Rinna. But they found new success on E! with Fashion Police, which Rivers hosted and her daughter produced.
No performer worked harder, was more resilient or tenacious. She never stopped writing, testing and fine-tuning her jokes.
“The trouble with me is I make jokes too often,” she said in 2013, just days after the death of her elder sister. “I was making jokes yesterday at the funeral home. That’s how I get through life. Life is SO difficult – everybody’s been through something! But you laugh at it, it becomes smaller.”
She faced true crisis in the mid-1980s. Edgar Rosenberg, her husband of 23 years, committed suicide in 1987 after she was fired from her Fox talk show, which he produced. The show’s failure was a major factor, Rivers said. Rosenberg’s suicide also temporarily derailed her career.
“Nobody wants to see someone whose husband has killed himself do comedy four weeks later,” she told The New York Times in 1990.
Rivers originally entered showbusiness with the dream of being an actress, but comedy was a way to pay the bills while she auditioned for dramatic roles. “Somebody said ’You can make six dollars standing up in a club’ and I said ’Here I go!’. It was better than typing all day.”
In the early 1960s, comedy was a man’s game and the only women comics she could look to were Totie Fields and Phyllis Diller.
But she worked her way up from local clubs in New York until, in 1965, she landed her big break on The Tonight Show after numerous rejections.
“God, you’re funny. You’re going to be a star,” host Johnny Carson told her after she had rocked the audience with laughter.
Her nightclub career prospered and by late that year she had recorded her first comedy album, Joan Rivers Presents Mr Phyllis And Other Funny Stories. Her personal life picked up as well: she met British producer Rosenberg and they married after a four-day courtship.
Rivers hosted a morning talk show on NBC in 1968 and, the next year, made her Las Vegas debut with female comedians still a relative rarity.
“To control an audience is a very masculine thing,” Rivers told the Los Angeles Times in 1977. “The minute a lady is in any form of power, they (the public) totally strip away your femininity – which isn’t so. Catherine the Great had a great time”
In 1978, she wrote, directed and co-starred in the movie Rabbit Test. It had an intriguing premise – Billy Crystal as a man who gets pregnant – but was poorly received. In 1983, though, she scored a coup when she was named permanent guest host for Carson on Tonight.
Although she drew good ratings, NBC hesitated in renewing her contract three years later. Fledgling network Fox jumped in with an offer of her own late-night show.
She launched The Late Show Starring Joan Rivers on Fox in 1986, but the venture lasted just a season and came at a heavy price: Carson cut ties with her when she surprised him by becoming a competitor.
Carson kept publicly silent about her defection but referred obliquely to his new rival in his monologue on the day her show debuted.
“There are a lot of big confrontations this week,” Carson said as the audience giggled expectantly.
“Reagan and Gorbachev, the Mets versus the Astros, and me versus The Honeymooners lost episodes.”
Her show was gone in a year and she would declare that she had been “raped” by Fox. Three months later, her husband was found dead.
It took two years to get her career going again, and then she did not stop. Rivers appeared at clubs and on TV shows including Hollywood Squares. She appeared on Broadway and released more comedy albums and books, most recently Diary Of A Mad Diva.
Rivers once joked that there was not “one female comic who was beautiful as a little girl”.
She was born Joan Molinsky in Brooklyn to Russian immigrants Meyer Molinsky, a doctor, and Beatrice.
Rivers had a privileged upbringing but struggled with weight – she was a self-proclaimed “fatty” as a child – and recalled using make-believe as an escape.
After graduating from Barnard College in 1954, she went to work as a department store fashion coordinator before she turned to comedy clubs. She had a six-month marriage to Jimmy Sanger.
In recent years, Rivers was a familiar face on TV shopping channel QVC, hawking her line of jewellery, and won the reality show Celebrity Apprentice by beating her bitter adversary, poker champion Annie Duke.
In 2010, she was featured in the documentary Joan Rivers: A Piece Of Work.
She never let age, or anything, make her sentimental. Earlier this year she got a half-inch-tall tattoo, “6M”, on the inside of her arm representing six million Jews killed in the Nazi Holocaust. Last year, she brashly pledged to work “forever”.
“You never relax and say ’Well, here I am!’,” she declared. “You always think ’Is this gonna be OK?’. I have never taken anything for granted.”
Survivors include daughter Melissa and a grandson, Edgar Cooper.