The European Central Bank has faced difficult decisions in recent years. It faces another one when its Governing Council meets today in Estonia.
The decision will be a close one, at least it should be. And, once again, the eurozone’s central bank is likely to err on the side of significant prudence by avoiding any notable reduction in monetary stimulus — even though the balance of arguments increasingly points to a different policy path.
The argument for some reduction in what has been significant and prolonged ECB stimulus is based on six realities:
Yet, the ECB seems in no rush to tighten monetary policy. Inflation is still too low for its liking and some officials there remember the premature tightening of 2011. There are also concerns about destabilising Italy ahead of elections there.
The mechanics of an ECB policy tightening at this stage are also complicated.
Forward policy guidance has committed the ECB to substantial asset purchases of €60 billion a month until the end of this year.
Any change in this timetable could diminish the effectiveness of this policy tool in the future.
But raising interest rates while maintaining such monthly purchases is analogous to driving a car while stepping on both the accelerator and brake pedals.
Facing these competing considerations, the ECB today will most likely revise upward its economic assessment but leave its policy stance unchanged — that is, announce no reduction in its asset purchase programme and no hike in interest rates.
But it’s a decision that will, and should, be hotly debated. After all, you could have too much of a good thing, especially if one of the consequences would be to inadvertently reduce pressures on politicians to pursue the structural reform measures that many eurozone countries need if they are to sustain higher and more inclusive growth.
As such, the ECB would be well advised to signal, at the minimum, its intention that, at the September Governing Council meeting, it would be inclined to gradually move away from a policy stance that has bought the region important time but has not dealt, and cannot deal, with many growth impediments.
These issues are solvable if politicians step up fully to their economic governance responsibilities.
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