Spain's prime minister has described this month's referendum in Catalonia as part of a strategy "to impose independence that few want and is good for nobody".
Mariano Rajoy was addressing parliament a day after Catalan officials, including the regional president, signed what they called a declaration of independence from Spain.
Mr Rajoy has described the crisis as "one of the most difficult times in our recent history".
He said Catalan authorities broke the law by holding the October 1 referendum and incited street protests to give an appearance of legitimacy to the vote.
He also said nobody should be proud of Catalonia's referendum or the image it gave, and that not a single country supports Catalonia's push for secession.
Earlier the prime minister had demanded clarity from Catalan president Carles Puigdemont over Tuesday's declaration of independence.