Heavy snowfall and strong winds have hit the Russian capital, slowing traffic and causing numerous flight delays.
A snowstorm which lasted most of the day has strained the resources of local authorities, which deployed thousands of snowploughs and trucks to clear the streets of Moscow.
Russian news reports said dozens of flights at Moscow airports were either cancelled or delayed, and the snow is scheduled to carry on overnight.
A massive cyclone which hit Moscow also affected most other areas of western Russia.
The heavy snowfall follows an unseasonably warm spell in December when temperatures did not drop below freezing until the end of the month.