Pope Francis has demanded that the international community take "decisive measures" to resolve the causes of the mass exodus of Rohingya Muslims from Burma, breaking his recent silence over what the United Nations has declared to be a textbook case of "ethnic cleansing".
Arriving in Bangladesh from Burma, he said it also was "imperative" for world governments to immediately provide assistance to help the Bangladeshi government cope with Asia's worst refugee crisis in decades.
In a speech in front of Bangladesh President Abdul Hamid, government officials and ambassadors from around the world, Francis praised Bangladesh's sacrifice and generosity in welcoming in so many refugees "before the eyes of the whole world".
He did not identify the Rohingya by name, ethnicity or faith, referring only to "refugees from Rakhine state" but his words were sharp.
"None of us can fail to be aware of the gravity of the situation, the immense toll of human suffering involved, and the precarious living conditions of so many of our brothers and sisters, a majority of whom are women and children, crowded in the refugee camps," he said.
"It is imperative that the international community take decisive measures to address this grave crisis, not only by working to resolve the political issues that have led to the mass displacement of people, but also by offering immediate material assistance to Bangladesh in its effort to respond effectively to urgent human needs."
Francis, a tireless and fearless advocate for refugees, outcasts and society's most marginal, had drawn criticism from human rights organisations and Rohingya themselves for having failed to speak out publicly about their plight while he was in Burma.
He had remained silent out of diplomatic deference to his hosts, who consider the Rohingya as having illegally migrated from Bangladesh and do not recognise them as one of Burma's ethnic groups.
More than 620,000 Rohingya have fled Burma and poured into Bangladesh refugee camps over the last few months amid a scorched earth campaign by the Burmese military.
The Vatican defended the Pope's silence, saying he wanted to "build bridges" with the predominantly Buddhist nation, which only recently established diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Spokesman Greg Burke said Francis took seriously the advice given to him by the local Catholic Church, which urged him to toe a cautious line and not refer to the Rohingya by name.
Rohingya have faced persecution and discrimination in Burma for decades and are denied citizenship, even though many families have lived there for generations.
The situation grew worse in August when the army began what it called clearance operations in Rakhine state following attacks on security positions by a group of Rohingya militants.
Rohingya living in camps in Bangladesh have described indiscriminate attacks by Burmese security forces and Buddhist mobs, including killings, rapes and the torching of entire villages.
Bangladesh President Hamid accused Burma's military of having committed "ruthless atrocities" against the Muslims and, in his speech to Pope Francis, demanded international help to return them safely to Burma.
"Our people welcomed them with open arms, sharing food, shelter and other basic needs," he said. "Now, it is our shared responsibility to ensure for them a safe, sustainable and dignified return to their own home and integration with the social, economic and political life of Myanmar."
The Rohingya crisis loomed large over Francis's arrival in Dhaka, where huge banners with pictures of the Pope and Mr Hamid dotted billboards around town.
Security was tight and was of particular concern after a Christian priest went missing in northern Bangladesh on Tuesday, and his family reported they received calls demanding money. Police said they were looking for the man but would not confirm if it was a kidnapping.
The country's leading English-language newspaper, The Daily Star, said in an editorial it felt "slightly let down" that the Pope did not mention the Rohingya crisis specifically while in Burma.
"We remain hopeful that given Pope Francis' legacy of standing up for the oppressed, he will speak out against the ongoing persecution of the Rohingya during this very important visit," the paper added.
Francis will not visit the refugee camps while in Bangladesh but will host an interfaith peace meeting on Friday in the garden of the Dhaka archbishops' residence at which a small group of Rohingya are expected.