Hundreds of new protective barriers will be permanently installed in Times Square and other locations around New York in an effort to block vehicles from hitting pedestrians after deadly attacks last year on crowds.
The city is spending $50m on protective measures including the installation of 1,500 metal barriers, or bollards, in key locations around the city, said Mayor Bill de Blasio.
Known around the world for the New Year's Eve ball drop, Times Square is crowded most days with tourists, costumed characters, sightseeing bus hawkers and office workers.
In May, a man said by police to be high on drugs drove through crowds for more than three blocks, killing an 18-year-old tourist from Michigan. The vehicle was eventually stopped by one of the squat metal barriers.
Temporary concrete blocks were put up along the Seventh Avenue pavement while city officials weighed a long-term solution and considered banning vehicle traffic from the area all together.
Then, on Halloween, an Islamic State-inspired attacker drove down a busy bicycle path near the World Trade Centre, authorities said. He killed eight people before he wrecked his rented truck and was shot by police.
Barriers were also placed there to keep cars out of the bike path.
"In 2017, New Yorkers witnessed the horrible capacity of people willing to do us harm, whether it was in our subways, on our bike paths or in Times Square," Mr de Blasio said.
"We know we have to do even more to keep people safe and that's why we conducted a review on how best to secure our streets and public spaces, and we formulated a plan of action."
The rollout will begin in March. Meanwhile, the temporary blocks already set up will remain in place.