Germans across the country are commemorating the 75th anniversary of Kristallnacht, the night of broken glass, during which the Nazis staged a wave of attacks on Jews in Germany and Austria.
On November 9 1938, hundreds of synagogues were burned, numerous homes and Jewish-owned stores were ransacked, some 1,000 people were killed and more than 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps.
Germans in many cities and towns are holding candle-light vigils, listening to Jewish survivors share memories and meeting to remember the victims of Kristallnacht.
German chancellor Angela Merkel said Kristallnacht “was an event that humiliated Jews in an unbelievable way ... a real low point in German history had been reached”.
She called on Germans to never forget the past.