France raised questions today about whether a proposed deal to temporarily curb Iran’s nuclear programme goes far enough, complicating negotiations with the Iranians and casting doubt on whether an agreement could be reached during the current round of negotiations in Switzerland.
The chances of that appeared to diminish as the day went on.
A Western diplomat in Geneva for the talks told reporters it appeared that a new round of talks would be needed to agree on all points of a start-up deal meant to lead to a comprehensive agreement to ensure that Tehran’s nuclear work remains peaceful.
He said preparations were being made by both sides for an announcement of a new meeting within a few weeks. He said earlier that the French were holding out for conditions on the Iranians tougher than those agreed to by the US and France’s other negotiating partners, diminishing hopes of a done deal today.
But the talks in Geneva were still under way, with US Secretary of State John Kerry, EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton, and foreign ministers from Britain, France, Germany and Russia holding meetings with Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif.
French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius spoke of “several points that... we’re not satisfied with compared to the initial text”, telling France-Inter Radio that his country did not want to be part of a “con game”.
He did not specify, but his comments suggested that France thought a final draft of any first-step deal was too favourable to Iran. Concerns also were raised by Israel and a number of prominent figures in the US Congress.
The French position was confirmed by another Western diplomat but neither gave any details.
Mr Fabius’s remarks were the first to provide some specifics on the obstacles at the Geneva talks, now in their third day.
He mentioned differences over Iran’s Arak reactor south-east of Tehran, which could produce enough plutonium for several nuclear weapons a year once it goes online. He also said there was disagreement over efforts to limit Iran’s uranium enrichment to levels that would require substantial further enriching before they could be used as the fissile core of a nuclear weapon.
French Foreign Ministry spokesman Romain Nadal pointed to “rather large cohesion” among the negotiators and said France wanted “the international community to see a serious change in the climate” of talks with Iran.
“There have been years of talks that have led to nothing,” he said, alluding to the need for tough terms on Iran.
Iran, which denies any interest in nuclear weapons, currently runs more than 10,000 centrifuges that have created tons of fuel-grade material that can be further enriched to arm nuclear warheads.
It also has nearly 440lb (200kg) of higher-enriched uranium in a form that can be turned into weapons much more quickly.
Experts say 550lb (250kg) of that 20%-enriched uranium are needed to produce a single warhead.
Iran says it expects Arak, the plutonium producing reactor, to be completed and go online sometime next year. It would need additional facilities to reprocess the plutonium into weapons-grade material and the UN’s nuclear agency monitoring Iran’s atomic activities says it has seen no evidence of such a project.
Mr Fabius said Iran is opposed to suspending work on Arak while nuclear negotiations go on in attempt to reach a first-stage agreement and then a comprehensive final deal limiting Tehran’s atomic work. He said that “for us” suspension was absolutely necessary, but it was unclear if that meant France was alone in seeing the issue as non-negotiable or whether he was speaking for the rest of the negotiating group.
Iran is also being asked to blend down “a great part of this stock at 20%, to 5%,” Mr Fabius said. Uranium enriched to 5% is considered reactor fuel grade and upgrading it to weapons-level takes much longer than for 20% enriched uranium.
He also suggested that the six powers were looking for an Iranian commitment to cap future enrichment at 5%.
“We are hoping for a deal, but for the moment there are still issues that have not been resolved,” Mr Fabius said.
Signalling that the talks could end without agreement, British Foreign Secretary William Hague spoke of unresolved issues and told reporters “there is no fixed time for us to reach a conclusion”.
Any agreement would be a breakthrough after nearly a decade of mostly inconclusive talks, but would only be the start of a long process to reduce Iran’s potential ability to produce nuclear arms, with no guarantee of ultimate success.
Mr Kerry and his European counterparts arrived in Geneva on Friday with the talks at a critical stage following a full day of negotiations on Thursday and said some obstacles remained in the way of any agreement offering sanctions reductions for nuclear concessions.
The presence of Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and word that Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Baodong Li also was heading to the talks provided fresh hope for at least an interim deal.
But Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu insisted yesterday that any agreement in the making was a “bad deal” that gave Iran a pass by offering to lift sanctions for cosmetic concessions which he said left intact Tehran’s nuclear weapons-making ability. Israel is strongly critical of any deal that even slightly lifts sanctions unless Iran is totally stripped of technology that can make nuclear arms.
Asked about Mr Netanyahu’s criticism, White House spokesman Josh Earnest said “any critique of the deal is premature” because an agreement has not been reached.
The White House later said President Barack Obama called Mr Netanyahu to update him on the ongoing talks and said Mr Obama affirmed that he is still committed to preventing Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. The White House said Mr Obama and Mr Netanyahu will stay in close contact.
Mr Kerry tempered reports of progress, warning of “important gaps” that must be overcome. But Mr Lavrov’s deputy, Sergei Ryabov, was quoted as saying that Moscow expects them to produce a “lasting result expected by the international community”.
The talks are primarily focusing on the size and output of Iran’s enrichment programme, which can create both reactor fuel and weapons-grade material suitable for a nuclear bomb. Iran insists it is pursuing only nuclear energy, medical treatments and research, but the US and its allies fear that Iran could turn this material into the fissile core of nuclear warheads.