The European Commission is taking Italy to court for failing to clear up a festering rubbish crisis in Naples.
More than 250,000 tons of backlogged waste has been piling up on its streets since collection came to a near halt in December because there was no more room at dumps.
The European Union executive said it was taking Italy to the European Court of Justice because Naples and the Campania region have not obeyed European rules that require governments to pick up rubbish and dispose of it safely.
It also sent Italy a written warning for failing to comply with an earlier court ruling that found the Lazio region around Rome disobeyed EU rules because it did not have a regional waste management plan.
The court can fine Italy if it does not fall into line.