Fehaid Aldeehani made history at the Deodoro shooting range in Rio by becoming the first athlete competing under the International Olympic Committee flag to win a gold medal.
The 49-year-old Kuwait-born shooter took men's double trap gold in a competition that saw Britain's Steven Scott claim bronze.
Kuwait are currently banned from taking part in the Olympics due to government interference in the country's Olympic movement.
The Olympic flag was raised at the medal ceremony for Aldeehani, who has won two bronze medals at previous Games, with the Olympic anthem also played.
Independent Olympic athletes had previously claimed two bronze medals and one silver - all in shooting, and all at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics.
"This is very special to finally get gold," he said.
"In the final, God gave me the will to win. This is my day - it means everything.
"It was very tough today in the wet and the wind, but I was able to come through."