Working parents have been the hardest hit by consecutive harsh budgets and austerity.
According to new research from the Economic and Social Research Institute, households where both parents work have seen the biggest squeeze, with a 13% drop in disposable income since the recession took hold.
Women have fared worse, suffering a 15% drop - due partly to a 25% cut to child benefit over the five-year period from 2009 to 2013. Child benefit is usually received by mothers.
The ESRI report also found that women were hit harder by adjustments to tax, welfare and public sector pay, because a higher proportion of women work in the public service and are more likely to be in receipt of a carers' allowance.