A “Trojan horse” drug which attacks tumour cells from within may offer new hope to cancer patients with few options left, researchers say.
The treatment has generated promising results in people with six different cancer types, including cervical, bladder, ovarian, and lung, early trial results which were published recently in journal The Lancet Oncology show.
The drug — tisotumab vedotin (TV) — was tested on patients with advanced cancers which had stopped responding to standard treatments, and caused some tumours to shrink or stop growing.
The research was led by a team at the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) in London and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust.
“What is so exciting about this treatment is that its mechanism of action is completely novel — it acts like a Trojan horse to sneak into cancer cells and kill them from the inside,” said lead author Johann de Bono.
“Our early study shows that it has the potential to treat a large number of different types of cancer, and particularly some of those with very poor survival rates.
The trial involved nearly 150 patients with different cancer types which were drug-resistant.
More than a quarter of the patients studied who had with bladder cancer (27%) and 26.5% with cervical cancer responded to the treatment.
The tumours of 13% of people with oesophageal cancer, 13% with non-small cell lung cancer, and 7% with endometrial cancer also shrunk or stopped growing, according to researchers.
This response lasted for an average of 5.7 months, but up to 9.5 months in some patients, the study found.
The TV treatment is made up of a toxic drug attached to an antibody and designed to target a receptor which is found in high levels on the surface of many cancer cells, called tissue factor.
When it binds to the tissue factor, the drug is capable of getting inside cancer cells, where it kills them from within.
The results mean it is now being tested in other cancer types, including bowel and pancreatic, and further trials for cervical cancer are also being carried out.
Paul Workman, chief executive of the ICR, said: “We’ve seen major advances against cancer in recent decades, but many tumour types remain very difficult to treat once the cancer has begun to spread.
“We desperately need innovative treatments like this one that can attack cancers in brand new ways, and remain effective even against tumours that have become resistant to standard therapies.”