A new report is highlighting the scale of death and suffering caused to civilians caught up in the war in Mosul.
Amnesty International claims Iraqi forces and the US-led coalition used imprecise, explosive weapons, killing thousands of civilians.
It has said some of the violations may constitute war crimes and wants an independent commission to investigate.
The report also details how the so-called Islamic State group deliberately trapped families in west Mosul to use as human shields.
Executive director of Amnesty International Ireland Colm O'Gorman has said the Iraqi and US coalition knew civilians were being used in this way.
"The Iraqi and US-led coalition knew that those civilians were being used in this way, they knew that they were many thousands of civilians in west Mosul and despite that they used weapons that were indiscriminate in their nature and that resulted din mass civilian deaths," he said.