A leading economist says Irish companies exporting goods into the UK should may face extra costs when Britain leaves the EU.
Most manufacturers pay 0% VAT on exports to the UK as it's EU member state.
However Brexit would affect this and 23% VAT will have to be added to all goods exported.
Economist Susan Hayes says that the reality is there will be costs and delays whatever way you look at it.
"So €1.2bn of exports go from the South up to the North. If there is a hard border you're looking at delays at the border which is a trade barrier in itself."